Lecturer: Ramon Wyss

The course starts on wednesday 15nd January, 10:15 am, in F24

There exist two grand designs in nature at zero temperature - the solid and the liquid. Most systems belong to the former. Although the atomic nucleus is kept together via strong forces, we can assume that it forms a liquid. The potential energy is not strong enough to overcome the zero point motion of the nucleons....

The course in Nuclear Physics will give the student a first introduction to basic pehonmena in Nuclear Physics and important applications of Nuclear Physics in technology. The course will selected items such as:

the deuteron - the nuclear shell model - the liquid drop model - basic scattering theory - nucleon-nucleon interaction -

the strong force - alpha-decay

the weak force - beta -decay

the electromagnetic force - gamma-decay

deformed nuclei and collective motion - rotations - vibrations

fission and fusion - future sustainable nuclear energy production

accelerators

**Literature:**

**K.Krane, Introductory Nuclear Physics**

**Lectures:**

- Introduction and repeatition. Chap.2 ' Quantum mechanics' p.10-45 is assumed to be well know, part of it is repeated in the course
- The Deuteron Chap 4 'Basic Nuclear Structure',p.80-84 (Chap 3 know from subatomic physics)

- The Fermi Gas model - the Fermi liquid Separate material, distributed during the lecture
- The nucleon-nucleon interaction, the nuclear potential Chap 4 'Basic Nuclear Structure', p.86-113
- The nuclear shell-model Chap 5 'Nuclear Models', p.116-159
- Collective motion Chap 5, Chap 11, p416-419, 431-441
- Alpha decay and barriar penetration, WKB-method Chap 8, p246-261
- The Fermi theory of beta-decay, the neutrino, helicity Chap 9, p272-302, 309-323
- Gamma-decay - electromagnetic interaction Chap 10, whole chapter
- Fission - fusion - sustainable nergy sources Chap 13, whole chapter, Chap 14, p. 528-538
- Neutron Physics and applied nuclear physics Chap 12, whole chapter, Chap 15, p559-581

**week 3** lectures: wednesday 10 - 12 F24,

**week 5-9 **lectures: wednesday 10 - 12 F32,

**week 3-8 **lectures: thursday 10 - 12 E53,

**!!!CHANGES!!!**

*No lectures week 8, 19,20 February!!!!!!*

*New lecture wednesday 26 Feb, 8:15, sammanträdesrummet, Lindstedtsv.
24 (entrance level)*

responsible: *Joakim Cederkäll,* tel: 16 11 02

- Principles of radiation detection
- internal conversion
- the Moessbauer effect
- gamma-gamma coincidences
- Nuclear Reaction at the MSL-van de Graaf acelerator

laboratories start: week 7

**sign up! SCHEDULE at Physics I, Lindstedtsv. 24, 1th floor **

**STUDY VISIT TO STUDSVIK, Feb 24, separate schedule**

If you are interested to follow - please contact Ramon Wyss

*book: K.S. Krane, Introductory Nuclear Physics *

Examination will be in approved home exercises and written reports from laboratory lessons

Home exercises will be put onto this homepage!!

The lecturer (Ramon Wyss) can be reached on telephone 790 8452, 161107 or by e-mail wyss@atom.kth.se

The course assistant (Joakim Cederkäll) has telephone 161102 and e-mail cederkall@msi.se.

**HEMTAL**

**Senaste inlämningsdatum: fredagen 21. mars**

**1:**

1) Beraekna N- och Z-linjen foer prompt proton- och neutron emission vid A=100,200 utifraan den semi-empiriska massformeln.

2) Foer vilka masstal kan atomkaernor fissionera utifraan den semi-empiriska massformeln?

3) Hur stor aer Coulombenergin foer tvaa protoner med samma medelradie som deutronen?

4) Loes uppgift 4.3 och 4.7 i Krane, sid 113,114

**2: **

**1**)Starting from the values of the potential of the Deuteron:

What is the phase-shift and crossection for elastic neutron-proton scattering for the S-singlet state, assuming it is bound at -10keV. Incoming energy 10keV and 1MeV.

**3:**

Hemtal 3: (Shell-model 1)

1) What are the three lowest configurations you expect in a) 131 Sn, 133Sn b) 91Zr, 89Zr, 89Y, 90Y, 91Y

2) Use the simple single-particle estimate to calculate a) quadrupole moment for these configurations (from 1) b) magnetic moments for the same configurations

3) Use the harmonic oscillator or the square well potential and calculate the Energy spectrum for 124Sn (you may use matlab). You can estimate the effect of the Coulomb-interactoin by shifting the Proton-well by an amount, that corresponds to the Coulomb energy. What is the necessary strength (amount) of the spin-orbit force, that shifts the g9/2 levels down, so that they become occupied. What is the strength needed that the h11/2 neutrons become occupied.

**4:**

1) Derive expression for the quadrupole moment 5.16 and moment of inertia 5.18, starting from a surface described by 5.14 (equations from Krane, p142, 143) Defintion of quadrupole moment - see 3.36

2) Choose a deformed odd-N and odd-Z nucleus. Label three low-lying configurations in terms of their Nilsson labels and by their expected state (spin and parity)

3) The f7/2 orbit with Omega=1/2 is lowered in the Nilsson potential by approximatively 0.5 MeV, when the deformation is increasing from beta2=0.0 to 0.3 (P.155) The deformed potential has an additional term to the harmonic oscillator, that is proportional to r^2 Y_20. To first order the shift in energy is given by the expectation alue of <f7/2|r^2Y_20|f7/2> (with the proper Omega value). What strength (factor in front of the deformation part) is needed to get this shift?

**5:**

1)Calculate the halflife, the barrier height and thickness for the nuclei 238U and 186Os. Use a radius parameter of r_o=1.4 fm.

2)) 238Pu decays to 234U. Calculate the binding energy of 234U, when the alpha particle has a kinetic energy of 5.499 MeV, a bindingenergy of 28.3 MeV and the mass of 238Pu is 238.049555 [u]

3)234Padecays via beta-emission to a 4- and 5- state in 234U. Sketch the most likely decay to the ground state, when the first excited state in 234U has an energy of 43.5 keV.

**6:**

1) Calculate the maximum energy of the charged particle in the beta-decay of 124Sb. The ground state has I=3- and a halflife of 60.20d. Deduce the log ft value and the nuclear matrix element M_fi from the half life.

2)In the decay chain for mass number 121, the first excited state in 121In at 313keV has I=1/2-(with half life to_1/2=3.8minutes) whereas the ground state has has I=9/2+ (30 seconds). In 121Sn, the first excited state at 6keV has I=11/2- (55years) and the ground state I=3/2+(21h). Discuss the states and their half lifes. Why do the excited states decay via beta-decay? Calculate the maximum energy of the emitted particle.

3) Krane, problem 9.a, p375

4)Calculate the proton spectrum for a neutron detector if we have a mixture of 220Rn and 9Be

5)Explain why thermal neutrons lead to fission in 235U but not in 238U. Which quantity is important when you discuss the probability for fission for thermal neutrons.

6) Krane, problem 16, p.526

6) What is the main difference between the direct p-p fusion process and the fusion of p-p in the CNO cycle.

*!!!EXJOBB!!! *

1) Development of a system for dynamic and sensitive measurement of radon concentration in ground water. Applications to earthquake precursors and bedrock structure information.

2) Numerical simulations of the response and efficiency of a large neutron detector system for EUROBALL. Possible application to nuclear medicine and neutron therapy.

3) Development of an in vivo detector system for radio tracers in nuclear medicine and for environmental medicine.

contact: Bo Cederwall / cederwall@msi.se / 16 10 87 /

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Diploma work in experimental nuclear physics at a large national facility in the U.S., Italy, France or Germany.

Theoretical Nulcear Physics and Basic Quantum Mechanics

contact: Ramon Wyss /wyss@atom.kth.se / 790 84 52 - 16 11 07